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The great Hadith scholar and Hanafi jurist (faqih), Mulla Ali al-Qari (Allah have mercy upon him) states in his al-Maslak al-Mutaqassit fi al-Mansak al-Mutawassit, a commentary on Imam al-Sindhi’s Lubab al-Manasic (Manasic Mulla Ali al-Qari)as follows: “All the scholars agree on the fact that the most virtuous of cities are the cities of Makkah al-Mukarramah and Madina al-Munawwara, Allah increases them in honor and respect. Then the scholars differed as to which one of the two is more virtuous Some stated that Makkah is more virtuous than holy Madina and this is the opinion of the three Imams (Abu Hanifa, Shafi’i and Malik), and has also been narrated from some Companions (Allah be pleased with them). Others stated that holy Madina is more virtuous than Makkah and this is the opinion of some Maliki scholars and those who followed them from the Shafi’i school. It was said that this was also narrated from some of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them). It is possible that this was during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) or it was for those who migrated to holy Madina from holy Makkah (Muhajirin).

However, the above difference of opinion is with regards to other than the blessed grave of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and the Ka’aba, for Ka’aba is more virtuous than Madina with the exception of the Prophet’s (Allah bless him & give him peace) grave according to all the scholars. Similarly, the blessed grave of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) is more virtuous than Masjid al-Haram without any difference of opinion among the scholars. So much so that the majority of the scholars (jumhur) have stated that, the piece of land on which rests the blessed body of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) is the most virtuous of lands on the face of this earth by the consensus (ijma’) of all the scholars even more virtuous than Ka’aba�and the throne (arsh), as some of them have explicitly mentioned.

Thus, Qadhi Iyadh and others (Allah have mercy on them all) have related the consensus of the scholars on the fact that the land on which lies the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) is more virtuous than even Ka’aba, and that the difference of opinion among the scholars is besides the grave” (Manasic Mulla Ali al-Qari, p. 531-532). Qadhi Iyadh al-Maliki (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“There is no difference of opinion in that the grave of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) is the most virtuous land on earth.” (al-Shifa’ bi ta’rif huquq al-Mustafa, p. 595). The great Hanafi jurist (faqih), Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states:

“And Makkah is more virtuous than Madina according to the preferred opinion with the exception of the land on which rests the blessed body of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), for that is virtuous unrestrictedly, even more than Ka’aba, ‘Arsh and the Kursi.”

Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) also agrees with the above statement of Imam al-Haskafi in his super-commentary (hashiya), thus it relates to the ‘Manasik’ of Mulla Ali al-Qari, which has been mentioned earlier.

Therefore, there is complete consensus of the scholars on the fact that the area of the land on which rests the body of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) i.e. his holy grave is more blessed and more virtuous than everything which includes the Ka’aba and the throne of Allah Almighty.

This is in accordance with the belief of the Ahlal-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah that the Messenger of Allah (saw) is the best and most beloved of all creation, thus even the land where his body rests has been given this status that to become the most virtuous of lands.

Some people may think how can the holy grave of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) be more virtuous than even the throne (arsh) of Allah Most High? The answer to this is that both ‘Arsh and Kursi’ are also the creation of Allah Most High and He is not sitting (in every sense of the word) on his throne. He is pure from time and space, thus the Aqidah of the Ahlal-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah is that Allah Almighty is not restricted to any time or space, though His knowledge encompasses everything. The most venerable and virtuous creature is the messenger of Allah (PBH). Hence Almighty Allah created the light (noor) of the messenger (BPH) at first before he creates any thing and any one.

Visiting our Prophet (PBH) and the Sacred square of Rasulullah at Madina Munawwara is indeed among the greatest blessings and fortunes. Whoever is blessed with the opportunity of visiting our beloved Prophet (PBH) should have an understanding of the tremendous significance and the wonderful fortune of this Sacred Visit. A windfall of the greatest reward has come his way. He must, therefore, acquire the maximum benefit from this golden opportunity which Allah Almighty has bestowed on him.

Many people, due to lack of knowledge, or proper understanding of the importance of the visiting try to lose this great chance of gaining the great and wonderful spiritual benefits and rewards.

According to the consensus of Muslim scholars, visiting the holy grave of Rasulullah is one the highest desirable act of worship. Therefore those who proceed for Hajj should try their best to visit him (PBH).

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In boyhood days itself, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was noticed because of his good character. He was very calm, honest and kind. He was popularly known as Al- Ameen, which means, honest due to his unique behavior. He did not indulge in drinking, gambling or illicit relationships and in unwanted quarrellings. In those days people of Makkah had plunged in all vices. They had all of the bad habits. Superstitions and unreasonable rituals were in the zenith. Their holy sanctuary Ka’bah was filled with three hundred and sixty idols. They used to worship idols and to give offerings to numerous ‘gods’. Men and woman together would circumambulate the Ka’bah nakedly without any shame. And it was considered as a sacred custom. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam did not involve in any of such deeds. He spent his time herding the sheep and assisting the needy people.

He had visited Syria accompanying a merchant caravan led by Abu Twalib. Since Abu Twalib gave up the trade, he could not travel more. Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) was a rich woman and reputed merchant in Makkah .Hearing Muhammad’s impressive credentials Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) invited him to join her merchant caravan. She asked Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam to take some merchandise for trade to Syria. She has sufficient faith in him to entrust with him all of her business affairs. Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) was then twice widowed and forty years old. She was attracted by the stemming behavior of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and proposed marriage with him. They married when Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was twenty five while Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was forty years old. Their marital life was full of compromise and love. No crack did take place in their satisfied family life. They gave birth to six children; four daughters and two sons. His first son Qasim died at the age of two. He was nicknamed ‘Abul Qasim’ meaning the father of Qasim. Second son Abdullah died in infancy. The four daughters were Zainab, Ruqiyya, Ummu Kulthoom and Fatima Radhiyallahu anhunna.

Gets The prophethood

Till the age of forty he spent a variety life without engaging in any vice. When he reached forty he spent more of his time in deep meditations. He withdrew into the mountains to meditate and pray. Often he went to the mount Hira and meditated lonely there. He took food with him and Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was well co-operating with him. And Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was well co – operating with him. One day it happened. It was a rare incident that changed his personal life and changed the world history.

One day a total stranger appeared before him. He said to him ‘Iqra’ meaning read or recite. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied: ‘I am not a reader’ as he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write. Then stranger embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance and after releasing said: ‘Iqra’. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s answer was the same as before. The stranger repeated the embrace for the third time and asked him to repeat and said;

 

‘Recite in the name of your lord who created man from that which clings.

Recite; thy lord is most Beautiful, he who has taught by the pen,

Taught man what he knew not’

Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was terrified by the whole experience and suddenly fled out of the cave. When he reached his home tired and frightened, asked his wife ‘cover me, cover me in a blanket. After his fear became less his lovely wife asked him about the reason of his great anxiety and fear. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam explained what happened. Hearing the whole story Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha consoled him, saying. ‘Allah will not let you down because you are kind to relatives, you speak only truth you help poor, the orphan and the needy and you are an honest man’.

An old hermit who knows previous scriptures well was there. His name was Waraqat-bin- Naufal and was a relative of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha. Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha consulted with him and explained what happened to his husband. Waraqat confirmed to her that the visitor was none other than the Angel Jibreel Alaihissalam who had come to Moosa Alaihissalam. He added that Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam is the messenger of Allah. Then he said worriedly. ‘Your society will drop you out, if I were alive then, I would be with you’. With great surprise Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam asked the priest. ‘Will they drop me out?’

Few days passed silently. One day holy message was revealed again.

‘O thou wrapped up

Arise and deliver warning

And thy Lord do thou magnify’

Thus Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was appointed as the Messenger of Allah. In the beginning his propagation was secret. Later he determined to announce his message publicly. One day climbing on mountain Safa, he called the Quash naming their races and tribes separately. They gathered suddenly answering his call, because they knew that ‘Al – Ameen’ would not call then without a reasonable cause, After all the people gathered, he threw a question to them ‘Do you believe if I say that a well setup army of the enemy comes towards you from behind of this mountain?’. The gathered mob suddenly replied without the lapse of a second for thought: “Certainly we shall, because you did not tell us a lie yet”. After their unanimous answer Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: “I warn you about a great punishment that is life after death. Do worship only one god Allah. He only deserves worship. You do avoid the polytheism”. Hearing this, mob became unruly. Abu Lahab, his uncle, rebuked him saying ‘Woe on you!!! For this you called us? He started the criticism against the The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Abu Lahab’s two sons Utaba and Utaib married the The prophet’s two daughters Ruqiyya and Ummu Kulthoom. They divorced them because of these events.

Most of the people hated Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and they misbehaved with him, only because of revealing the ultimate truth. Now they renamed him as madman and sorcerer.

After getting the prophethood, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam spent thirteen years in Makkah, enduring the attacks of the inhabitants. Enemies used all types of worries against the believers. They sneered, boycotted and tried even to assassinate believers. They began to persecute Muslims by beating and torturing. Those who were weak, poor slaves were publicly tortured. The first person to die by these means was a Muslim woman by the name Ummu Ammar (the mother of Ammar bin yasir). The Muslims from well- to-do families were physically restrained in their homes with the condition that if thy resign from the new religion they will be allowed freedom of movement.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was publicly ridiculed and humiliated, including frequent throwing of filth on him in the street and while he prayed in Ka’bah. In spite of great hardships and no apparent support, the message of Islam kept all Muslims firm in their belief. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was asked by god to be patient and to preach the message of Islam. He advised Muslims to remain patient. He sent some people to Abyssinia (Now Ethiopia) as refugees, when the persecution became unbearable. It was in the fifth year of his mission. A rajah (Negus) was the then ruler of Abyssinia. He gave proper shelter and promised safety to all Muslims. No sooner had the Muslims left Makkah than the leaders of the Quraish discovered their flight. They decided to not leave the Muslims in peace and immediately sent two of their envoys to Negus to bring all of them back. But their plot collapsed because of the firm stand of Negus. He questioned the envoy and enquired about the new religion and the holy prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Finally Negus allowed Muslims to stay under his protection. Thus the emigrants were allowed freedom of worship in Abyssinia. Understanding the The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s proceeding with his mission, Enemies decided to plan a variety of trick. They approached Abu Twalib. Abu Twalib was a respected person in the society for he was the custodian of the Ka’bah. He had not accepted Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s preaching but he protected him from the enemies. They presented a minimum package before Abu Twalib, containing attractive offers.

“If Muhammad wants to be a king we are ready to make him our king. If he wants to be the richest man of the Makkah we will made him so. Or if he wants to marry a beautiful girl we are ready to give him the most beautiful girl of Makkah. But our only request is that he should stop the protest against our gods”

Had his intention a materialistic one that was a golden opportunity. But when Abu Twalib exchanged these words to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam he replied rather strong than he proclaimed before.

‘O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop, I would keep preaching until Allah would make Islam prevail or I die’

Hearing these firm and innocent words Abu Twalib said; ‘say what perceived to you. I will not spare you to them as far as I alive’ He kept his promise and became a shadow and support to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam till he dies.

Umar Radhiyallahu anhu comes

Umar and Hamza’s embrace of Islam strengthened the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his companions. Both were very brave and strong youths of Makkah. Umar Radhiyallahu anhu had come to cut the head of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. But in the way he is said that his sister herself and her husband were embraced Islam. Burning with fury he ran to them with unsheathed sword. Reaching there he asked about the holy verses of Quran and he attacked his sister and her husband but eventually he became calm and quiet hearing the enchanted word of Quran. A great change took place in his mind and he ran to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam, not to take his head but to accept the holy message of Islam. Umer’s coming to Islam was an important turning point in the history of Islam .Till then Muslim used to pray very secretly and after his entry they publicly prayed in the Kaaba .Many people who were afraid of accepting Islam embraced Islam.

Enemies became in total confusion. They decided to double hostility against Muslims. They mercilessly tortured Muslims. Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu, a Negro Muslim slave, was tortured brutally by his master. He put Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu on the hot sand of the desert, nakedly. His hands were tied with chains. They put heavy rocks upon his stomach. But he tolerated it without any fear and shouted “Allah is one, Allah is one”. His miseries lasted till Aboobakker Radhiyallahu anhu bought him with a huge amount and released.

Social boycott

Leaders of enemies called a meeting at Kaaba to discuss the matters pertaining to Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. They decided to cut off all the connections with Abu Twalib family .They displayed a notice on Ka’bah calling that any Makkah inhabitants should not co-operate with the Abu Thalib‘s family economically and socially. Chief brain behind this plot was Abu Lahab.

Abu Twalib was not ready to surrender before this severe boycott. They transferred their stay into a valley owned by Abu Twalib. The ban was lifted. They found their secret document on the terms of ban, which they had stored in Ka’bah, was eaten by worms and all that was left were the opening words in the name of Allah

Just after social ban was lifted, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam faced personal grief. He himself named that year as ‘the year of sorrow’. It was the death of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha, his beloved wife, and Abu Thalib, his uncle. Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was the prime assistant to his noble duty. She dedicated her health and wealth for the sake of Islam. Her memory remained in the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s mind, till his departure from this world. Abu Thalib’s death occurred before his recovering from the shock of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha’s death. Abu Twalib was very considerate of him and he sincerely loved the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. He became happy in the raise of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and released from his entire crisis.

A miracle journey

Allah cooled the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam with his strange experiences. He experienced two miracle journeys i.e., Isra’u and Mi’uraj. In the Isra’u Jibreel Alaihissalam took the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam from the sacred mosque near Kaaba to the farthest mosque (Al aqsa) in Jerusalem in a very short time in a latter part of the night .Here the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam met with previous prophets (Ibrahim Alaihissalam , Moosa Alaihissalam , Eesa Alaihissalam and others) and he led them in prayer . After this in the mire the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was taken up to heaven and skies to show the signs of Allah. In this miracle journey he was presented five daily prayers. He was then taken back to Makkah, the whole experience lasting a few hours of night.

Next day the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam announced what he experienced. Upon hearing this , the people of Makkah mocked at him .However , when his specific description of Jerusalem (they know that he did not visit Jerusalem earlier ) other things on the way , and the caravan that he saw on this journey including its expected arrival at Makkah turned out to be true, the ridicule of the non-believers stopped. When Aboo Bakar Radhiyallahu anhu, the favorite companion of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam heard the event from a person he replied without a second thought “if the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam said this, it would be of course true”. After this event the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam named him as sideeque (very truthful).

Migration (Hijra)

Enemies continued their attacks and assaults. Abu Thalib’s death and his non –belief in Islam stimulated the enemies. When their attacks reached at the apex stage the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam decided to go to Thaif, where he had many relatives. But unfortunately, they flatly refused him, mocked at him and severely injured him by inciting their children to throw stones at him. But even then he tolerated. Jibreel Alaihissalam visited the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam suggesting that the angels were ready to destroy the town if he would permit. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam rejected the offer and prayed for their goodness. It was the unmatched event in the world history.

Finally they decided to move from Makkah for the freedom of worship and safety of belief. He contacted with the leaders of Yathrib (Madina). They admitted to give refuge for the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. Just after getting the order from Allah, he gave permission to his followers for migration to Madina. Believers migrated to Yathrib in small groups, leaving behind their properties and homes.

The leaders of Quraish planned to kill the prophet Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam. They understood that this was the appropriate time to do it because almost all of his followers had left Makkah. They developed and idea in which one man was chosen from each of the Quraish tribes and they were to attack the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam simultaneously. Jibreel Alaihissalam informed the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam of the plan and instincted him to leave Makkah immediately, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam surprisingly escaped from Makkah along with Aboobacker Radhiyallahu anhu in the night he was to be assassinated. They went to the cave Thour. Upon discovery of his escape, the leaders of Quraish put up a reward of one hundred camels on him dead or alive. In spite of their vigilant search Allah protected him and got arrived safely at Yathrib.

This event is known as the Hijra (migration) and the Islamic calendar begins with this event. The people of Yathrib were prosperous masses. They heartily welcomed him. They offered all helps from their part towards the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. By renaming Yathrib as ‘Madeenathurasulaullah’ (city of messenger of Allah) they dedicated their selves to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Later the name ‘Madina’ became popular. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam appreciated them by calling them ‘Ansar’ (assistants). Those who came from Makkah were known as Muhajirs (migrants)

Second phase of the propagation

Second phase of the propagation began at Madina. Now they got sufficient freedom of worship. Besides, inhabitants of Madina more or less completely, embraced Islam. A great revolution took place in their minds. The war between Gouse and Khazraj, two famous tribes in Madina, which started hundred years ago and still continuing , stopped because the intervention of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam . He taught them that all are brothers and sisters. There occurred communal harmony and mutual brotherhood.

To ensure peace and tranquility the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam proposed some treaties defining terms of conduct for all Muslims and non Muslims and Arabs and Jews.

After his migration to Madina, the enemies of Islam increased their assault from all sides. They tried their best to uproot the new religion. Many conspiracies and plots occurred. They tried to influence Jews who were contracted to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam

After the order of war from Allah they fought the battles of Badr, Uhud and many other wars to defend the attack of the enemies. From them Badr was very important. It was the first war which fought against the enemy. Muslims who consisted of three hundred thirteen men fought against one thousand enemies who were well set up and armed completely. On the Muslim part major positions were unarmed. Just before starting the war The prophet was seen prostrated and prayed to Allah ‘O Allah , if this tiny group of believers fails today , there will have none on earth who offers worship to you , help us for the existence of this religion’.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was very active in Madina. He dealt all the matters at best.

Marriages and family life

After khadeeja’s death, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam married a widowed woman whose husband was died and she was left completely desolate. Later he married Aisha Radhiyallahu anha, the daughter of Aboobacker Radhiyallahu anhu. Aysha Radhiyallahu anha was an extraordinary wise woman .Many teaching and sayings from the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam were got to the world from her experiences.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam married, totally, nine women. All of the ladies, he took as his wives, were either widowed or divorced except Aysha Radhiyallahu anha. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam ‘s marriages provided security to woman who would have other wise remained unmarried , unprotected or felt humiliated .His marriages were also a means of transmitting important teachings of Islam. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s wives were called ‘the mothers of believers’ .Nobody can marry them after his death. This condition put to sustain their glory till the last day. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam did justice to all of his wives. He distributed his total days among his wives. Some old wives donated their turn to Aysha Radhiyallahu anha. No considerable disputes took place among the wives .It was a satisfied family life. One day all wives together applied a memorandum before the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam, demanding more facilities to them. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied ‘I cannot give you sufficient livelihood. If you prefer materialistic pleasures let me spare you. Or if you prefer Allah, his messenger and the life after death, be patient’. Hearing these noble words their mind danged and they said unanimously ‘we prefer Allah and His messenger’.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam lived almost simple and modest life. Many days had passed in his house, without any smoke in the oven. He and his family used to go without cooked meal several days at a time, relying on dates, dried bread and water. It is rare in his life the day in which he filled his belly.

He was a great ruler of a vast kingdom. But his residence, rather his hut was built of unfurnaced bricks. His bed was made of the floor of the date palms. One day some of his comrades asked him ‘let us made a mat for you?!’ The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied with a smile’ what relation between me and this world?! A traveler takes rest on a shadow of a tree in his way. After sometime he departs from there’. Had our modern luxurious rulers studied these lessons!

Triumphant victory of Makkah

A very systematic social setup was formed in Madina. Now it became the cradle of brotherhood and equality. It became the model to all universes. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was well aware of the enemies’ return .He decided to march to Makkah before enemies come to him. He intended to liberate Ka’bah, the house which is built for the worship of some gods, from the idol worshippers and to purify it. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam moved to Makkah with one thousand people with him. He planned a tremendous revolution over Makkah but without shedding even one drop of blood. Before entering the city he sent word to citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home, or in Abusufyan‘s home or in the Ka’bah would be safe. Observers of enemies reported to their leaders that the army was in big in size so they cannot fight them. The leader of the enemy surrendered before the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam ordered the army to enter to Makah. They shouted ‘Alllahu Akbar’ (Allah is the great) they got simple and easy victory over Makkah .It was totally a revolution without blood-shedding. In the history of the world it remains unmatched. The people of Makkah expected genocide in view of their persecution and torture of Muslims for the past twenty years. While standing by the Ka’bah The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam promised clemency for the Makkah stating ‘O Quraish what do you think that I am about to do with you?’ they replied ‘good, you are a noble brother. Son of a noble brother. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam forgave them all saying ‘I will treat you as the prophet Yusuf Alaihissalam treated his brothers. There is no reproach against you. Go your homes and you are all free’. Incredible moments!! .They shed tears of joy. They repented from mistakes and embraced Islam

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam entered Ka’bah and pointed at each idol with a stick he got in his hand and said ‘Truth has arrived and falsehood perished, for falsehood is bound to perish’ and one by one idols fell down. The Ka’bah was then cleansed by the removal of all three hundred and sixty idols, and it was restored to its unspoiled status for the worship of one true God. Proclaiming the oneness of God Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu shouted from the top of Ka’bah ‘Alllahu Akbar’. After one month the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam returned to Madina. He proposed Khathab bin Asak Radhiyallahu anhu who was embraced Islam at the time of Makkah victory as the governor of it. This technique was well paid off. Many people who were in confusion accepted Islam seeing their unique equality and concern.

Pilgrimage of The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam (Hajj)

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam reached Makkah again with one lakh followers at the tenth of Hijra. He performed his first and last complete Hajj. There he delivered a lecture to the lakhs of Muslims. This is known as his farewell speech. The lecture was a great emancipation proclamation. He touched all the important matters in his long speech. Here Islam became a complete religion and a code of life. Qur’an says ‘

 

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s demise

Two months after the pilgrimage, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam fell ill and after several days he bid farewell from this world on Monday , twelfth of Rabeeul Awwal in the eleventh year after Hijra (June , 8, 632 /CE ) in Madina. Madina city became sadder; they could not even speak a single word. Even Umar Radhiyallahu anhu, the bravest man, became in perplexity. Hearing the news he shouted unconsciously, raising his sword ‘I will take the head of the person who says messenger of Allah died’. He ran to and fro without any control. All remained silently without knowing what to do. At this critical juncture Aboo Baker Sidheeque Radhiyallahu anhu came to the site .He displayed his maturity and rose according to the situation, controlling his grief. He stood before the prophet’s holy body with respect and kissed his forehead. Then he spoke to the mob that are in utter confusion. His words flowed out of his mouth “if anyone had worshipped Muhammad, he is dead. If any one worshipped Allah, he will remain forever!”. These sharp words penetrated into Umar (R)’s heart .Unknowingly his sword fell down. Now he became calm and quite.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was the great model to all the world .He played many roles at the same time .He was the head of the state, chief justice, commander-in chief, arbitrator, instructor and family man. But in spite of these great roles he left nothing to be inherited except a white mule (A gift of Muqawqis), a few ammunition and a piece of land that he had made a gift during his lifetime. Among his last words is “we, the community of the prophets, are not inherited. What ever we leave is for charity”

 

 The prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was born in 570 CE in Makkah. His father Abdullah died before his birth. His mother Amina died while on the return of journey from Madina at a place called Abawa’ when he was seven. Then his patronage moved to his parental grand father Abdul Muthalib until the age of eight, and after his grand father’s death to Abu Twalib, his paternal uncle.


In boyhood days itself, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was noticed because of his good character. He was very calm, honest and kind. He was popularly known as Al- Ameen, which means, honest due to his unique behavior. He did not indulge in drinking, gambling or illicit relationships and in unwanted quarrellings. In those days people of Makkah had plunged in all vices. They had all of the bad habits. Superstitions and unreasonable rituals were in the zenith. Their holy sanctuary Ka’bah was filled with three hundred and sixty idols. They used to worship idols and to give offerings to numerous ‘gods’. Men and woman together would circumambulate the Ka’bah nakedly without any shame. And it was considered as a sacred custom. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam did not involve in any of such deeds. He spent his time herding the sheep and assisting the needy people.

He had visited Syria accompanying a merchant caravan led by Abu Twalib. Since Abu Twalib gave up the trade, he could not travel more. Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) was a rich woman and reputed merchant in Makkah .Hearing Muhammad’s impressive credentials Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) invited him to join her merchant caravan. She asked Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam to take some merchandise for trade to Syria. She has sufficient faith in him to entrust with him all of her business affairs. Khadeeja (Radhiyallahu anha) was then twice widowed and forty years old. She was attracted by the stemming behavior of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and proposed marriage with him. They married when Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was twenty five while Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was forty years old. Their marital life was full of compromise and love. No crack did take place in their satisfied family life. They gave birth to six children; four daughters and two sons. His first son Qasim died at the age of two. He was nicknamed ‘Abul Qasim’ meaning the father of Qasim. Second son Abdullah died in infancy. The four daughters were Zainab, Ruqiyya, Ummu Kulthoom and Fatima Radhiyallahu anhunna.

Gets The prophethood

 

Till the age of forty he spent a variety life without engaging in any vice. When he reached forty he spent more of his time in deep meditations. He withdrew into the mountains to meditate and pray. Often he went to the mount Hira and meditated lonely there. He took food with him and Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was well co-operating with him. And Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was well co – operating with him. One day it happened. It was a rare incident that changed his personal life and changed the world history.

One day a total stranger appeared before him. He said to him ‘Iqra’ meaning read or recite. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied: ‘I am not a reader’ as he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write. Then stranger embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance and after releasing said: ‘Iqra’. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s answer was the same as before. The stranger repeated the embrace for the third time and asked him to repeat and said;

( اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق ( 1 ) خلق الإنسان من علق ( 2 ) اقرأ وربك الأكرم ( 3 ) الذي علم بالقلم ( 4 ) علم الإنسان ما لم يعلم ( 5 ) )

‘Recite in the name of your lord who created man from that which clings.

Recite; thy lord is most Beautiful, he who has taught by the pen,

Taught man what he knew not’

Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was terrified by the whole experience and suddenly fled out of the cave. When he reached his home tired and frightened, asked his wife ‘cover me, cover me in a blanket. After his fear became less his lovely wife asked him about the reason of his great anxiety and fear. Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam explained what happened. Hearing the whole story Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha consoled him, saying. ‘Allah will not let you down because you are kind to relatives, you speak only truth you help poor, the orphan and the needy and you are an honest man’.

An old hermit who knows previous scriptures well was there. His name was Waraqat-bin- Naufal and was a relative of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha. Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha consulted with him and explained what happened to his husband. Waraqat confirmed to her that the visitor was none other than the Angel Jibreel Alaihissalam who had come to Moosa Alaihissalam. He added that Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam is the messenger of Allah. Then he said worriedly. ‘Your society will drop you out, if I were alive then, I would be with you’. With great surprise Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam asked the priest. ‘Will they drop me out?’

Few days passed silently. One day holy message was revealed again.

‘O thou wrapped up

Arise and deliver warning

And thy Lord do thou magnify’

Thus Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was appointed as the Messenger of Allah. In the beginning his propagation was secret. Later he determined to announce his message publicly. One day climbing on mountain Safa, he called the Quash naming their races and tribes separately. They gathered suddenly answering his call, because they knew that ‘Al – Ameen’ would not call then without a reasonable cause, After all the people gathered, he threw a question to them ‘Do you believe if I say that a well setup army of the enemy comes towards you from behind of this mountain?’. The gathered mob suddenly replied without the lapse of a second for thought: “Certainly we shall, because you did not tell us a lie yet”. After their unanimous answer Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: “I warn you about a great punishment that is life after death. Do worship only one god Allah. He only deserves worship. You do avoid the polytheism”. Hearing this, mob became unruly. Abu Lahab, his uncle, rebuked him saying ‘Woe on you!!! For this you called us? He started the criticism against the The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Abu Lahab’s two sons Utaba and Utaib married the The prophet’s two daughters Ruqiyya and Ummu Kulthoom. They divorced them because of these events.

Most of the people hated Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and they misbehaved with him, only because of revealing the ultimate truth. Now they renamed him as madman and sorcerer.

After getting the prophethood, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam spent thirteen years in Makkah, enduring the attacks of the inhabitants. Enemies used all types of worries against the believers. They sneered, boycotted and tried even to assassinate believers. They began to persecute Muslims by beating and torturing. Those who were weak, poor slaves were publicly tortured. The first person to die by these means was a Muslim woman by the name Ummu Ammar (the mother of Ammar bin yasir). The Muslims from well- to-do families were physically restrained in their homes with the condition that if thy resign from the new religion they will be allowed freedom of movement.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was publicly ridiculed and humiliated, including frequent throwing of filth on him in the street and while he prayed in Ka’bah. In spite of great hardships and no apparent support, the message of Islam kept all Muslims firm in their belief. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was asked by god to be patient and to preach the message of Islam. He advised Muslims to remain patient. He sent some people to Abyssinia (Now Ethiopia) as refugees, when the persecution became unbearable. It was in the fifth year of his mission. A rajah (Negus) was the then ruler of Abyssinia. He gave proper shelter and promised safety to all Muslims. No sooner had the Muslims left Makkah than the leaders of the Quraish discovered their flight. They decided to not leave the Muslims in peace and immediately sent two of their envoys to Negus to bring all of them back. But their plot collapsed because of the firm stand of Negus. He questioned the envoy and enquired about the new religion and the holy prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Finally Negus allowed Muslims to stay under his protection. Thus the emigrants were allowed freedom of worship in Abyssinia. Understanding the The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s proceeding with his mission, Enemies decided to plan a variety of trick. They approached Abu Twalib. Abu Twalib was a respected person in the society for he was the custodian of the Ka’bah. He had not accepted Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s preaching but he protected him from the enemies. They presented a minimum package before Abu Twalib, containing attractive offers.

“If Muhammad wants to be a king we are ready to make him our king. If he wants to be the richest man of the Makkah we will made him so. Or if he wants to marry a beautiful girl we are ready to give him the most beautiful girl of Makkah. But our only request is that he should stop the protest against our gods”

Had his intention a materialistic one that was a golden opportunity. But when Abu Twalib exchanged these words to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam he replied rather strong than he proclaimed before.

‘O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop, I would keep preaching until Allah would make Islam prevail or I die’

Hearing these firm and innocent words Abu Twalib said; ‘say what perceived to you. I will not spare you to them as far as I alive’ He kept his promise and became a shadow and support to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam till he dies.

Umar Radhiyallahu anhu comes

Umar and Hamza’s embrace of Islam strengthened the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his companions. Both were very brave and strong youths of Makkah. Umar Radhiyallahu anhu had come to cut the head of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. But in the way he is said that his sister herself and her husband were embraced Islam. Burning with fury he ran to them with unsheathed sword. Reaching there he asked about the holy verses of Quran and he attacked his sister and her husband but eventually he became calm and quiet hearing the enchanted word of Quran. A great change took place in his mind and he ran to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam, not to take his head but to accept the holy message of Islam. Umer’s coming to Islam was an important turning point in the history of Islam .Till then Muslim used to pray very secretly and after his entry they publicly prayed in the Kaaba .Many people who were afraid of accepting Islam embraced Islam.

Enemies became in total confusion. They decided to double hostility against Muslims. They mercilessly tortured Muslims. Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu, a Negro Muslim slave, was tortured brutally by his master. He put Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu on the hot sand of the desert, nakedly. His hands were tied with chains. They put heavy rocks upon his stomach. But he tolerated it without any fear and shouted “Allah is one, Allah is one”. His miseries lasted till Aboobakker Radhiyallahu anhu bought him with a huge amount and released.

Social boycott

Leaders of enemies called a meeting at Kaaba to discuss the matters pertaining to Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. They decided to cut off all the connections with Abu Twalib family .They displayed a notice on Ka’bah calling that any Makkah inhabitants should not co-operate with the Abu Thalib‘s family economically and socially. Chief brain behind this plot was Abu Lahab.

Abu Twalib was not ready to surrender before this severe boycott. They transferred their stay into a valley owned by Abu Twalib. The ban was lifted. They found their secret document on the terms of ban, which they had stored in Ka’bah, was eaten by worms and all that was left were the opening words in the name of Allah

Just after social ban was lifted, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam faced personal grief. He himself named that year as ‘the year of sorrow’. It was the death of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha, his beloved wife, and Abu Thalib, his uncle. Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha was the prime assistant to his noble duty. She dedicated her health and wealth for the sake of Islam. Her memory remained in the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam’s mind, till his departure from this world. Abu Thalib’s death occurred before his recovering from the shock of Khadeeja Radhiyallahu anha’s death. Abu Twalib was very considerate of him and he sincerely loved the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. He became happy in the raise of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and released from his entire crisis.

A miracle journey

Allah cooled the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam with his strange experiences. He experienced two miracle journeys i.e., Isra’u and Mi’uraj. In the Isra’u Jibreel Alaihissalam took the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam from the sacred mosque near Kaaba to the farthest mosque (Al aqsa) in Jerusalem in a very short time in a latter part of the night .Here the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam met with previous prophets (Ibrahim Alaihissalam , Moosa Alaihissalam , Eesa Alaihissalam and others) and he led them in prayer . After this in the mire the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was taken up to heaven and skies to show the signs of Allah. In this miracle journey he was presented five daily prayers. He was then taken back to Makkah, the whole experience lasting a few hours of night.

Next day the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam announced what he experienced. Upon hearing this , the people of Makkah mocked at him .However , when his specific description of Jerusalem (they know that he did not visit Jerusalem earlier ) other things on the way , and the caravan that he saw on this journey including its expected arrival at Makkah turned out to be true, the ridicule of the non-believers stopped. When Aboo Bakar Radhiyallahu anhu, the favorite companion of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam heard the event from a person he replied without a second thought “if the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam said this, it would be of course true”. After this event the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam named him as sideeque (very truthful).

Migration (Hijra)

Enemies continued their attacks and assaults. Abu Thalib’s death and his non –belief in Islam stimulated the enemies. When their attacks reached at the apex stage the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam decided to go to Thaif, where he had many relatives. But unfortunately, they flatly refused him, mocked at him and severely injured him by inciting their children to throw stones at him. But even then he tolerated. Jibreel Alaihissalam visited the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam suggesting that the angels were ready to destroy the town if he would permit. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam rejected the offer and prayed for their goodness. It was the unmatched event in the world history.

Finally they decided to move from Makkah for the freedom of worship and safety of belief. He contacted with the leaders of Yathrib (Madina). They admitted to give refuge for the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. Just after getting the order from Allah, he gave permission to his followers for migration to Madina. Believers migrated to Yathrib in small groups, leaving behind their properties and homes.

The leaders of Quraish planned to kill the prophet Sallallahu alaihi Wasallam. They understood that this was the appropriate time to do it because almost all of his followers had left Makkah. They developed and idea in which one man was chosen from each of the Quraish tribes and they were to attack the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam simultaneously. Jibreel Alaihissalam informed the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam of the plan and instincted him to leave Makkah immediately, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam surprisingly escaped from Makkah along with Aboobacker Radhiyallahu anhu in the night he was to be assassinated. They went to the cave Thour. Upon discovery of his escape, the leaders of Quraish put up a reward of one hundred camels on him dead or alive. In spite of their vigilant search Allah protected him and got arrived safely at Yathrib.

This event is known as the Hijra (migration) and the Islamic calendar begins with this event. The people of Yathrib were prosperous masses. They heartily welcomed him. They offered all helps from their part towards the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam and his followers. By renaming Yathrib as ‘Madeenathurasulaullah’ (city of messenger of Allah) they dedicated their selves to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Later the name ‘Madina’ became popular. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam appreciated them by calling them ‘Ansar’ (assistants). Those who came from Makkah were known as Muhajirs (migrants)

Second phase of the propagation

Second phase of the propagation began at Madina. Now they got sufficient freedom of worship. Besides, inhabitants of Madina more or less completely, embraced Islam. A great revolution took place in their minds. The war between Gouse and Khazraj, two famous tribes in Madina, which started hundred years ago and still continuing , stopped because the intervention of the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam . He taught them that all are brothers and sisters. There occurred communal harmony and mutual brotherhood.

To ensure peace and tranquility the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam proposed some treaties defining terms of conduct for all Muslims and non Muslims and Arabs and Jews.

After his migration to Madina, the enemies of Islam increased their assault from all sides. They tried their best to uproot the new religion. Many conspiracies and plots occurred. They tried to influence Jews who were contracted to the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam

After the order of war from Allah they fought the battles of Badr, Uhud and many other wars to defend the attack of the enemies. From them Badr was very important. It was the first war which fought against the enemy. Muslims who consisted of three hundred thirteen men fought against one thousand enemies who were well set up and armed completely. On the Muslim part major positions were unarmed. Just before starting the war The prophet was seen prostrated and prayed to Allah ‘O Allah , if this tiny group of believers fails today , there will have none on earth who offers worship to you , help us for the existence of this religion’.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was very active in Madina. He dealt all the matters at best.

Marriages and family life

After khadeeja’s death, the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam married a widowed woman whose husband was died and she was left completely desolate. Later he married Aisha Radhiyallahu anha, the daughter of Aboobacker Radhiyallahu anhu. Aysha Radhiyallahu anha was an extraordinary wise woman .Many teaching and sayings from the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam were got to the world from her experiences.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam married, totally, nine women. All of the ladies, he took as his wives, were either widowed or divorced except Aysha Radhiyallahu anha. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam ‘s marriages provided security to woman who would have other wise remained unmarried , unprotected or felt humiliated .His marriages were also a means of transmitting important teachings of Islam. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s wives were called ‘the mothers of believers’ .Nobody can marry them after his death. This condition put to sustain their glory till the last day. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam did justice to all of his wives. He distributed his total days among his wives. Some old wives donated their turn to Aysha Radhiyallahu anha. No considerable disputes took place among the wives .It was a satisfied family life. One day all wives together applied a memorandum before the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam, demanding more facilities to them. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied ‘I cannot give you sufficient livelihood. If you prefer materialistic pleasures let me spare you. Or if you prefer Allah, his messenger and the life after death, be patient’. Hearing these noble words their mind danged and they said unanimously ‘we prefer Allah and His messenger’.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam lived almost simple and modest life. Many days had passed in his house, without any smoke in the oven. He and his family used to go without cooked meal several days at a time, relying on dates, dried bread and water. It is rare in his life the day in which he filled his belly.

He was a great ruler of a vast kingdom. But his residence, rather his hut was built of unfurnaced bricks. His bed was made of the floor of the date palms. One day some of his comrades asked him ‘let us made a mat for you?!’ The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam replied with a smile’ what relation between me and this world?! A traveler takes rest on a shadow of a tree in his way. After sometime he departs from there’. Had our modern luxurious rulers studied these lessons!

Triumphant victory of Makkah

A very systematic social setup was formed in Madina. Now it became the cradle of brotherhood and equality. It became the model to all universes. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was well aware of the enemies’ return .He decided to march to Makkah before enemies come to him. He intended to liberate Ka’bah, the house which is built for the worship of some gods, from the idol worshippers and to purify it. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam moved to Makkah with one thousand people with him. He planned a tremendous revolution over Makkah but without shedding even one drop of blood. Before entering the city he sent word to citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home, or in Abusufyan‘s home or in the Ka’bah would be safe. Observers of enemies reported to their leaders that the army was in big in size so they cannot fight them. The leader of the enemy surrendered before the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam ordered the army to enter to Makah. They shouted ‘Alllahu Akbar’ (Allah is the great) they got simple and easy victory over Makkah .It was totally a revolution without blood-shedding. In the history of the world it remains unmatched. The people of Makkah expected genocide in view of their persecution and torture of Muslims for the past twenty years. While standing by the Ka’bah The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam promised clemency for the Makkah stating ‘O Quraish what do you think that I am about to do with you?’ they replied ‘good, you are a noble brother. Son of a noble brother. The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam forgave them all saying ‘I will treat you as the prophet Yusuf Alaihissalam treated his brothers. There is no reproach against you. Go your homes and you are all free’. Incredible moments!! .They shed tears of joy. They repented from mistakes and embraced Islam

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam entered Ka’bah and pointed at each idol with a stick he got in his hand and said ‘Truth has arrived and falsehood perished, for falsehood is bound to perish’ and one by one idols fell down. The Ka’bah was then cleansed by the removal of all three hundred and sixty idols, and it was restored to its unspoiled status for the worship of one true God. Proclaiming the oneness of God Bilal Radhiyallahu anhu shouted from the top of Ka’bah ‘Alllahu Akbar’. After one month the prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam returned to Madina. He proposed Khathab bin Asak Radhiyallahu anhu who was embraced Islam at the time of Makkah victory as the governor of it. This technique was well paid off. Many people who were in confusion accepted Islam seeing their unique equality and concern.

Pilgrimage of The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam (Hajj)

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam reached Makkah again with one lakh followers at the tenth of Hijra. He performed his first and last complete Hajj. There he delivered a lecture to the lakhs of Muslims. This is known as his farewell speech. The lecture was a great emancipation proclamation. He touched all the important matters in his long speech. Here Islam became a complete religion and a code of life. Qur’an says ‘

 

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam‘s demise

Two months after the pilgrimage, Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wasallam fell ill and after several days he bid farewell from this world on Monday , twelfth of Rabeeul Awwal in the eleventh year after Hijra (June , 8, 632 /CE ) in Madina. Madina city became sadder; they could not even speak a single word. Even Umar Radhiyallahu anhu, the bravest man, became in perplexity. Hearing the news he shouted unconsciously, raising his sword ‘I will take the head of the person who says messenger of Allah died’. He ran to and fro without any control. All remained silently without knowing what to do. At this critical juncture Aboo Baker Sidheeque Radhiyallahu anhu came to the site .He displayed his maturity and rose according to the situation, controlling his grief. He stood before the prophet’s holy body with respect and kissed his forehead. Then he spoke to the mob that are in utter confusion. His words flowed out of his mouth “if anyone had worshipped Muhammad, he is dead. If any one worshipped Allah, he will remain forever!”. These sharp words penetrated into Umar (R)’s heart .Unknowingly his sword fell down. Now he became calm and quite.

The prophet Sallallahu alaihi wasallam was the great model to all the world .He played many roles at the same time .He was the head of the state, chief justice, commander-in chief, arbitrator, instructor and family man. But in spite of these great roles he left nothing to be inherited except a white mule (A gift of Muqawqis), a few ammunition and a piece of land that he had made a gift during his lifetime. Among his last words is “we, the community of the prophets, are not inherited. What ever we leave is for charity”

The Biblical prophecies on the advent of the Prophet Muhammad  are evidence of the truth of Islam for people who believe in the Bible.
1)
That he will be like Moses.

2) That he will come from the brothers of the Israelites, i.e. the Ishmaelites.

3) That God will put His words in to the mouth of this prophet and that he will declare what God commands him.

Let us examine these three characteristics in more depth:

1) A prophet like Moses:

There were hardly any two prophets who were so much alike as Moses and Muhammad . Both were given a comprehensive law and code of life. Both encountered their enemies and were victorious in miraculous ways. Both were accepted as prophets and statesmen. Both migrated following conspiracies to assassinate them. Analogies between Moses and Jesus overlook not only the above similarities but other crucial ones as well. These include the natural birth, the family life, and death of Moses and Muhammad but not of Jesus. Moreover Jesus was regarded by his followers as the Son of God and not exclusively as a prophet of God, as Moses and Muhammad were and as Muslims believe Jesus was. So, this prophecy refers to the Prophet Muhammad and not to Jesus, because Muhammad is more like Moses than Jesus.

Also, one notices from the Gospel of John that the Jews were waiting for the fulfillment of three distinct prophecies. The first was the coming of Christ. The second was the coming of Elijah. The third was the coming of the Prophet. This is obvious from the three questions that were posed to John the Baptist: “Now this was John’s testimony, when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.” (John 1:19-21). If we look in a Bible with cross-references, we will find in the marginal notes where the words “the Prophet” occur in John 1:21, that these words refer to the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 and 18:18.2 We conclude from this that Jesus Christ is not the prophet mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18.

2) From the brothers of the Israelites:

Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac (Genesis 21). Ishmael became the grandfather of the Arab nation, and Isaac became the grandfather of the Jewish nation. The prophet spoken of was not to come from among the Jews themselves, but from among their brothers, i.e. the Ishmaelites. Muhammad , a descendant of Ishmael, is indeed this prophet.

Also, Isaiah 42:1-13 speaks of the servant of God, His “chosen one” and “messenger” who will bring down a law. “He will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth. In his law the islands will put their hope.” (Isaiah 42:4). Verse 11, connects that awaited one with the descendants of Kedar. Who is Kedar? According to Genesis 25:13, Kedar was the second son of Ishmael, the ancestor of the Prophet Muhammad .

3) God will put His words in the mouth of this prophet:

The words of God (the Holy Quran) were truly put into Muhammad’s mouth. God sent the Angel Gabriel to teach Muhammad , and under his supervision, these words were then memorized and written by his companions. the exact words of God (the Holy Quran) and asked him to dictate them to the people as he heard them. The words are therefore not his own. They did not come from his own thoughts, but were put into his mouth by the Angel Gabriel. During the life time of Muhammad

Also, this prophecy in Deuteronomy mentioned that this prophet will speak the words of God in the name of God. If we looked to the Holy Quran, we will find that all its chapters, except Chapter 9, are preceded or begin with the phrase, “In the Name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”

Another indication (other than the prophecy in Deuteronomy) is that Isaiah ties the messenger connected with Kedar with a new song (a scripture in a new language) to be sung to the Lord (Isaiah 42:10-11). This is mentioned more clearly in the prophecy of Isaiah: “and another tongue, will he speak to this people” (Isaiah 28:11 KJV). Another related point, is that the Quran was revealed in sections over a span of twenty-three years. It is interesting to compare this with Isaiah 28 which speaks of the same thing, “For it is: Do and do, do and do, rule on rule, rule on rule; a little here, a little there.” (Isaiah 28:10).

Note that God has said in the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18, “If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account.” (Deuteronomy, 18:19). This means that whoever believes in the Bible must believe in what this prophet says, and this prophet is the Prophet Muhammad .

Footnotes:

(1) All of the verses on this page have been taken from The NIV Study Bible, New International Version, except where noted as being KJV which means King James Version.

(2) See the marginal notes in The NIV Study Bible, New International Version on verse 1:21, p. 1594.

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Prophet Muhammed (p) was the architect of that transformation. His death in 632 presented the Islamic community with its first major challenge.

The Muslims met this challenge by establishing the institution of the Caliphate and affirming the continuity of historical Islam. The nascent Islamic state, with its capital at Madina, successfully defended itself from the predatory reach of the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires. But that very success sowed the seeds of dissension in the community. The captured wealth of Persia brought greed and nepotism and resulted in the assassination of the third Caliph Uthman bin Affan (r). The fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) tried to stem the tide of corruption and return to the pristine purity of faith but he was swept away by the whirlwinds created by the assassination of Uthman (r). With the death of Ali (r), the curtain fell on the age of faith in Islamic history.

 

Civilizations are tested with crises just as individuals are tried with adversity. It is these critical moments that bring out the character of a civilization, just as individual tests bring out the character of an individual. Great civilizations measure up to their challenges and grow more resilient with each crisis, turning adversity into opportunity. It is much the same way with individuals. Critical moments in history test the mettle of humans. Great men and women bend history to their will, whereas weaker ones are swallowed up in the convulsions of time.

It is a basic premise of this article that the primary dialectic of the world of Islam is internal. Its triumphs and tribulations are tied inextricably with how this universal community of believers has held onto the transcendental values taught by the Prophet. It is the cohesiveness or internal divisiveness of this global community that has determined its tryst with destiny. When the followers of Islam held onto the Divine injunctions of the Qur’an and the legacy of the Prophet, they triumphed. When they lost sight of that legacy, they fell into disarray and were marginalized by history.

The death of Prophet Muhammed (p) was the first historical crisis faced by the Islamic community. The process by which the community met this crisis has determined its strengths and its weaknesses in the subsequent centuries. The shape of the historical edifice of Islam was cast in that hour. The death of the Prophet brought forth the towering personalities of Abu Bakr as Siddiq (r), Omar ibn al Khattab (r), Uthman bin Affan (r) and Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) into the historical process. What these Companions did and did not do has influenced the course of Islamic history in the subsequent 1,400 years.

The Prophet was the fountainhead of Muslim life. No other person in history occupied a position in relation to his people, as did Prophet Muhammed (p) with respect to his. He was the focus for all social, spiritual, political, economic, military and judicial activities. He was the founder and architect of the nascent community. He was the Prophet and the Messenger of God. When he passed away, he left a vacuum that was impossible to fill. His legacy was tested immediately upon his death. At stake was the continuity of the historical process. The Prophet had welded together a community of believers transcending their allegiance to tribe, race or nationality. The glue that had cemented this process was the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. Now the Prophet was gone and it seemed that the divisive forces that Islam had overcome would resurface and tear apart the newborn community.

The first reaction to the death of the Prophet was shock, disbelief and denial. So great was the love of the Companions for the Prophet that they could not part with their love. So central was he to the life of the community that they could not imagine a life without his presence. When Omar ibn al Khattab (r) heard that the Prophet had passed away, he was so distraught that he drew his sword and declared: “Some hypocrites are pretending that the Prophet of God-may God’s peace and blessing be upon him—has died. By God I swear that he did not die; that he has gone to join his Lord, just as other Prophets went before. Moses was absent from his people for forty nights and returned to them after they had declared him dead. By God, the Prophet of God will return just as Moses returned. Any man who dares to perpetrate a false rumor such as Muhammed’s death shall have his arms and legs cut off by this hand.” People listened to Omar (r), too stupefied to believe that the man who had transformed Arabia from the backwaters of history to the forefront of the historical process was dead. The situation was grave indeed.

The resilience of Islam showed itself in the person of Abu Bakr (r). After confirming that the Prophet had indeed passed away, he entered the mosque where Omar (r) was speaking to the people and recited the following passage from the Qur’an: “Muhammed is but a Prophet before whom many prophets have come and gone. Should he die or be killed, will you give up your faith? Know that whoever gives up his faith will cause no harm to God, but God will surely reward those who are grateful to Him” (Qur’an, 3:144). It was as if the people had heard this passage for the first time; it struck them like a bolt of lighting. Omar (r) related later that when he heard it, his legs shook as he realized that the Messenger of God had indeed departed from this world. The mortality of the Prophet was established, while the transcendence of God was reaffirmed. The civilization of Islam was to be God-centered, not man-centered. Islam was to have its anchor in God and His Word. The Prophet, as the man who had brought the Divine Word and fulfilled his historical mission, had departed, but the light that had shone through him was to show the way to succeeding generations. Islam retained its transcendent character. It was to survive the physical absence of the Prophet and was to hurl itself as a dynamic force into the historical process.

The situation was fluid, uncertain and fraught with grave risks. The body of the Messenger who had led one of the greatest spiritual revolutions known to humankind was in the corner of a small room. Here was the man who had transformed a tribal society into a community of believers and made them masters of their own destiny. Wave after wave of men moved past the body, sobbing, shaking their heads, unsure of the future. They were now without the anchor that had supported them, without the leader who had sustained them, without the teacher who had taught them, without the statesman who had led them, without the Prophet who had brought the message of Divine transcendence.

The process of succession and its legacy for future generations were at stake. Islam had set for itself a mission to create a global community enjoining was is right, forbidding what is evil and believing in God. How was this mission to be fulfilled in the matrix of history without the physical presence of the Prophet? How was the edifice of a God-conscious community to be erected without the architect who had conceived it? Did the Prophet leave behind specific instructions on the issue of succession? If he did not, what was the wisdom behind that decision?

Immediately upon the death of the Prophet, competing positions emerged regarding the issue of succession. The first position was that of the Ansar, the residents of Madina who had provided protection and relief to the Muhajirs from Mecca. They felt that as the hosts who had stood by the Prophet at the hour of need, they deserved the leadership of the community. At the minimum, they argued that leadership should be shared. They proposed a committee of two, composed of one person from the Muhajirs and one from the Ansar, to lead the community. The second position was that of the supporters of Abu Bakr as Siddiq (r). They based their position on the fact that the Prophet, when he had become too ill before his death to lead the congregational prayers, had nominated Abu Bakr (r) as the Imam. Abu Bakr (r) was the first man to accept Islam and was also one of the closest of his Companions. The authentic ahadith confirm the highest affection and esteem that the Prophet had for Abu Bakr (r). The third position was that of the supporters of Ali ibn Abu Talib (r). Ali (r) was a cousin of the Prophet and was married to Fatimat uz Zahra (r), beloved daughter of the Prophet. He was the first youth to embrace Islam and the Prophet had referred to him as his heir and his brother. The Islamic community reconciled the first two positions in the first hours following the death of the Prophet but differences of opinion remained on the third issue. These differences led, in later years, to the Shi’a-Sunni schism, which runs like a great earthquake fault through Islamic history. Its recurrent divisive and destructive power shows itself at critical moments such as the massacre at Karbala (680), the Battle of Chaldiran (1517) and the Iran-Iraq war (1979-1987).

There was wisdom in the decision of the Prophet to leave the issue of succession to the collective judgment of the community. A universal religion must have validity for all peoples and at all times. It must have relevance to the people of the 21st century as it did to those who lived at the time of the Prophet. It must have meaning to the most sophisticated person as well as to the bushman in the jungle. The wisdom of the Prophet lies in the fact that whereas the principles of Islam are spelled out in their complete form in the Qur’an and are exemplified in the Sunnah of the Prophet, their implementation at specific times and in specific locations is left to the historical process. In other words, Islam is an existential religion. Its realization and fulfillment is a process that is eternal and incumbent upon each generation of believers. The position that the Prophet left specific instructions on the issue of political succession does not correlate with the existential aspects of Islam. However, not all Muslims share this view. Partisan positions on the issue of succession are taken based only on those ahadith, which support that position. But history is a merciless judge. With the passage of time, the differences on the issue of succession were solidified, leading to recurrent dissension, rebellion, repression and civil war.

Urged by the community leaders to prevent an open rift, Abu Bakr (r), along with Omar ibn al Khattab (r), proceeded to the courtyard of Banu Saida where the Ansar were holding a congregation to elect their leader. One of the Ansar put his position thus: “We are the Ansar—the helpers of God and the army of Islam. You, the Muhajirun are only a brigade in the Army. Nonetheless some amongst you have gone to the extreme of seeking to deprive us of our natural leadership and to deny us our rights.” Abu Bakr (r) spoke to the Ansar: “O men of Ansar! We, the Muhajirun were the first to accept Islam. We enjoy the noblest lineage and descent. We are the most reputable and the best esteemed as well as the most numerous in Arabia. Furthermore, we are the closest blood relatives of the Prophet. The Qur’an itself has given us preference. For it is God—may He be exalted in praise—Who said, “First and foremost were al Muhajirun, then al Ansar and then those who have followed these two groups in virtue and righteousness.” Then taking the hands of Omar (r) and Abu Ubaida, who were seated on either side of him, Abu Bakr (r) said, “Either one of these two men is acceptable to us as leader of the Muslim community. Choose whomever you please”. At this time Omar (r) raised the hand of Abu Bakr (r) and said, “ O Abu Bakr! Did not the Prophet command you to lead the Muslims in prayer? You, therefore, are his successor. In electing you, we are electing the best of all whom the Prophet of God loved and trusted”. The Ansar and the Muhajirun then stepped forward and took the oath of allegiance (baiyah) to Abu Bakr (r).

Thus it was that the nascent Islamic community resolved the issue of succession and embarked on constructing the edifice of their history. The process did not quite satisfy Ali ibn Abu Talib (r), Talha ibn Ubaidallah and Zubair ibn al Awwam. Ali (r), representing the family of the Prophet, was busy with the funeral preparations. Talha and Zubair were not in the preliminary consultations. Initially, Ali (r) withheld his oath of allegiance. But when Abu Sufyan approached him to declare himself the Caliph, Ali (r) saw the dangers of division in the community and accepted the Caliphate of Abu Bakr (r). According to Ibn Khaldun, Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) took his baiyah forty days after the death of the Prophet. According to Ibn Kathir, this happened only after the death of Fatima (r), six months after the Prophet’s death. Talha ibn Ubaidallah and Zubair ibn al Awwam gave their baiyah soon thereafter.

The Shi’a chroniclers do not accept the majority version, maintaining instead that the Caliphate was rightfully Ali’s (r) by deputation from the Prophet. However, there is consensus among all chroniclers that any differences regarding the issue of succession were quiescent during the time of Abu Bakr (r) and Omar (r) and did not surface in the open until the Caliphate of Uthman (r). It was much later, as positions hardened during the Umayyad (665-750) and Abbasid (750-1258) dynasties, that both sides advanced doctrinal arguments to support partisan opinions on the Caliphate and Wilayat / Imamate. Thus it was that Shi’a-Sunni differences were based not on religion or faith but had their origin in the politics of succession and history.

Some Sufis attach yet another dimension to the issue of succession. The Sufis represent the spiritual and esoteric dimension of Islam. Their enormous impact profoundly influenced the course of Islamic history. In their vision, the spirituality of humankind revolves around a Qutub in every age. The word Qutub means pivot, pole, chief and leader. When there is a Prophet on earth, he is the Qutub. He cleanses the consciousness of humanity so that it becomes worthy of receiving Divine Illumination. Moses was the Qutub for the spirituality of humankind when he was alive, as were David, Solomon, Joseph and Jesus in their times. As long as Muhammed was alive, he was the spiritual pole for humankind. Upon his death, the mantle of spirituality passed on to Fatima (r), daughter of the Prophet. After Fatima (r), the mantle passed on to Ali ibn Abu Talib (r). Most Sufi orders claim their spirituality from Ali (r) and by virtue of continuity, through Fatima (r) and ultimately from Prophet Muhammed (p). As long as Fatima (r) was alive, the Sufis maintain, Ali (r) could not have given his baiyah to Abu Bakr (r). It was only after Fatima (r) passed away, six months after the Prophet’s death, that Ali (r) finally gave his allegiance to Abu Bakr (r). According to this view, the mantle of spirituality continued to reside in Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) to whom important juridical issues were referred by the Caliphs Abu Bakr (r), Omar (r) and Uthman (r) and even by the faction headed by Muawiya.

In selecting Abu Bakr (r), the Companions established several precedents. They demonstrated that the Muslims were a living community capable of articulating their own destiny through a collective consultative process in the absence of the Prophet. They established that the Caliph, as the temporal ruler of the Islamic community, had to be a man of piety, trust, knowledge, strength, justice, integrity and righteousness. The community was like a newborn child taking its first breath after being cut off from the umbilical cord connecting it to its spiritual parent.

Upon accession to the Caliphate, Abu Bakr (r) was faced with several crises. The immediate issue was the dispatch of the army to the north to face the Byzantines. The Muslims had faced a stalemate with the Byzantines at the Battle of Tabuk and had lost their leader Zaid bin Haris. A follow up defensive expedition had been initiated by the Prophet to safeguard the northern approaches to Madina. Abu Bakr (r) reaffirmed the decision of the Prophet and dispatched an expedition under Usama bin Zaid. The expedition was successful and it demonstrated the strength and cohesiveness of the Muslims even in the absence of the Prophet.

The second challenge was the refusal of certain Arab tribes to pay the Zakat. Pre-Islamic Arabia was tribal. Many of these tribes had reluctantly accepted Islam towards the last days of the Prophet. When he passed away, they saw an opportunity to stop paying the mandatory Zakat, which they misunderstood as another form of taxation.

Zakat is not only a moral obligation in Islam; it is also a legal obligation. It is an act of purity. It is regarded as one of the five pillars of Islam and is an article of faith. In Islam, the economic well being of the community is as important as that of the individual. No man’s belief is complete unless he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself. Islam discourages hoarding and encourages sharing and investment. Zakat works to circulate money and operates against hoarding. Wherever the Qur’an emphasizes the establishment of prayer, it also emphasizes the payment of Zakat. Foregoing Zakat would have destroyed the moral foundation of the Islamic state and would have reduced Islam to a litany of personal beliefs and observances. Abu Bakr (r) conducted a vigorous police action against the non-payers of Zakat. He personally went on several expeditions and brought the rebellious tribes under the authority of the state.

The third crisis faced by Abu Bakr (r) was that of false prophets. Seeing the success and prosperity of the Muslims, many false prophets (and prophetesses) sprang up all over Arabia. Religion was and remains to this day, good business. Many a pretender saw in the success of Islam an opportunity to establish his own religion and get rich in the process. Abu Bakr (r) declared war on the false prophets. He sent eleven expeditions against as many pretenders. Of these the best known was the expedition of Khalid bin Walid against Musailimah al Kazzab, which culminated in the Battle of Yamama. Similar expeditions were sent towards Yemen, Amman and Hazeefa. All of these expeditions were successful.

It was in the campaign against Musailimah al Kazzab that a large number of the Companions of the Prophet perished. Many of them were hufaz (those who had memorized the Qur’an). The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet as the spoken Word, which was then memorized by hundreds of companions. The martyrdom of so many hufaz at the Battle of Yamama was a matter of great concern to the Companions. Upon the advice of Omar, Abu Bakr (r) ordered the writing down of the Qur’an to preserve it, as it was revealed to the Prophet, for all generations to come. The first written copy of the Qur’an is known by the title Mashaf e Siddiqi.

In the geopolitics of West Asia, neither the Byzantines nor the Persians could tolerate an independent, united and strong Arabia. Both powers had coveted the Arabian Peninsula for centuries. The Romans had occupied Syria and Jordan while the Persians had subjugated Iraq, Yemen and Hejaz. To the geopolitical element was now added the religious element. Prophet Muhammed (p), in fulfillment of his mission as the Messenger of God, had sent greetings to the rulers of the two powers inviting them to accept Islam. Heraclius, the Byzantine chief, had sent a polite reply but had ordered his troops into action on the northern borders of Arabia. Khosroe, the Persian emperor, had torn up the Prophet’s letter and had ordered his forces in Yemen to march on Madina and arrest the Prophet. It was to forestall the ambitions of the Byzantines and the Persians that the Prophet had initiated defensive actions to the north and the east. The campaigns undertaken by Abu Bakr (r) against the Byzantines and the Persians were thus a continuation of those that had been started by the Prophet himself.

Political developments in West Asia soon worked in favor of the emerging Islamic state. Persia was in turmoil. There was murder and mayhem in the imperial court. Sheroya, the eldest son of Khosroe Pervez murdered his father and all of his own brothers and usurped the throne. Eight months later, Sheroya died in mysterious circumstances and his infant son was made the monarch. The infant son was also killed and a number of courtiers claimed the throne, only to be murdered one after the other. Finally, the only surviving youngster in the Persian dynasty, Yazdgar, was made the emperor and a woman of the royal household was appointed his regent.

The weakness of Persia created military opportunities for its neighbors. Heraclius, the new Byzantine emperor, waged a series of campaigns (625-635) and won back some of the territories his predecessor had lost to the Persians. The explosive growth of the Islamic state since the Hijra (622) brought its borders to the River Euphrates, which marked the southwestern boundary of the Persian Empire. The Arab tribes near the Persian border, centered on the town of al Hirah, were restive. They had for a long period enjoyed an autonomous status under the protection of the Persian court. But Khosroe, the Persian monarch, had revoked that autonomy and had turned the areas into imperial colonies. Resentment had built up over increased taxes. Some of these tribes had accepted Islam during the life of the Prophet but had become apostates when he passed away. Abu Bakr (r) was aware of these developments. So, when Al Muthannah ibn Harithah, chief of the Banu Shaiban clan in eastern Arabia, approached him with a proposal to rally the Arab tribes against Persia, the Caliph agreed. Remembering their shifting loyalties, Abu Bakr (r) advised Al Muthannah to recruit only those tribes that had previously not become apostates.

Meanwhile, Khalid bin Walid had completed his operations against the apostate Arabs in eastern Arabia. Abu Bakr (r) ordered him to join up with Al Muthannah. The two together advanced on southern Iraq. An invitation was sent to Humuz, Persian governor of the province, inviting him to accept Islam and join in its global mission. If he refused, he was given the alternatives of accepting the protection of the Muslim state or war. Governor Humuz rejected all of these alternatives and hostilities began. The Arab armies first subdued Khadima (633) near modern Kuwait. From there, they moved on the port city of Ubullah (modern Basrah) near the mouth of the Shatt al Arab. Turning northwards along the western shores of the River Euphrates, Khalid’s forces rapidly overcame Persian resistance at Al Hirah and Al Anbar. The Arab tribes of the area welcomed their fellow Arabs as liberators from Persian imperial rule. Khalid’s rapid advance had left his northern flank open. This area, called Domatul Jandal by the Arabs, was located near the confluence of Syria and Iraq and was inhabited by Christian Arabs who openly sided with the Byzantines. After subduing Domatul Jandal, Khalid and his troops returned to Mecca and performed the Hajj. When Khalild returned to the battlefield, Abu Bakr (r) ordered him to the Syrian front where a decisive showdown was looming with the Byzantine Empire.

The emergence of a unified Arab state under Islam was no more acceptable to the Byzantines than it was to the Persians. The Byzantines had probed Muslim defenses at the time of the Prophet in preparation for a possible invasion of Arabia. It was to contain this threat that the Prophet had conducted the campaign of Tabuk. Continued Byzantine pressure had prompted the Prophet to send an expedition under Zaid bin Haris. As we have already pointed out, the engagement had proved indecisive and Zaid bin Haris was killed in the campaign. The Prophet had organized a second campaign under Usama bin Zaid, but he had passed away before the campaign got under way.

Abu Bakr (r) reaffirmed the decision of the Prophet to send an army to the northern borders. The instructions given by Abu Bakr (r) to Usama bin Zaid, commander of the Muslim forces, are noteworthy for their ethical content:

  • Do not kill children, women and old men.
  • Do not harm the disabled and do not disfigure the bodies of those killed in battle.
  • Do not destroy standing crops and do not cut down trees bearing fruit.
  • Do not be dishonest and misappropriate war booty.
  • Do not kill animals except as is necessary for food.

These injunctions have served, for kings and soldiers alike, as a canonical basis for a Muslim code of ethics during the last 1,400 years.

The campaigns under Usama bin Zaid were also inconclusive. The threat of an invasion from the north grew each day as the Byzantines made preparations for war. Abu Bakr (r) decided to preempt the enemy and ordered an invasion of Syria. An army of 27,000 was assembled and organized into three corps under the overall command of Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah. Abu Ubaidah was personally responsible for the central army corps directed at Syria. Supporting him was a corps headed by Amr bin al As directed at Palestine and one headed by Shurahbil ibn Hasanah directed at Jordan. Initial skirmishes took place at Wadi Arabah and Ghazzah. The three armies then proceeded towards Damascus. The main Byzantine forces under Theodorus, brother of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, blocked the further advance of the Muslim armies in the narrow gorge between Mount Hermon and Mount Hawran.

It was here that Khalid bin Walid won one of his most memorable victories. Marching rapidly westward from Iraq, Khalid overcame minor resistance along the way. Arriving at the battlefield, he moved in an enveloping arc bypassing the Byzantine army as well as the Muslim divisions and attacked the enemy positions from the rear while the main divisions under Abu Ubaidah made a frontal attack. Taken by surprise, the Byzantine columns dispersed. The Muslim armies pursued the Byzantines and inflicted heavy casualties on the retreating foe. Damascus fell in 635. In a few months, the cities of Balbak and Hama were also in Muslim hands.

Heraclius was not willing to concede the strategic province of Syria so easily. He was one of the most respected generals of his age and had defeated the Persians in numerous battles. He raised a new army of 200,000 and marched south along the coast, hoping to reach Beersheba and cut off the supply routes for the Muslim armies. When he heard of this move from his intelligence arm, Khalid made another wide arc and joining forces with Amr bin al As, reached Beersheba and having collected additional troops from the garrison there, marched northwards to meet Heraclius. The two armies met at Ajnadain where the Byzantines suffered another defeat.

Heraclius was now in a perilous military position. His escape routes both to the north and the south were cut off. He ordered his troops to regroup at the banks of the Yarmuk River near the town of Dir’a. Demonstrating his mastery of rapid enveloping movements, Khalid bin Walid bypassed the enemy lines and attacked from the north while the Byzantines faced off the divisions of Abu Ubaidah to the south. As if providence had a say in the matter, a violent sandstorm blinded the Byzantine troops, while the Arabs, used to the desert, took it in stride. Byzantine resistance collapsed.

The Battle of Yarmuk, fought in 636, was one of the decisive battles in history. It marked the end of Byzantine rule in West Asia and paved the way for further Muslim conquests in Egypt and North Africa. Abu Bakr (r) died a few days after the Battle of Yarmuk. He was 63 years old and his Caliphate lasted two years and three months.

Abu Bakr (r) provided the bridge between Prophet Muhammed (p) and historical Islam. Without his leadership, Zakat would have disappeared as an institution and the nature of religion itself would have been altered. The legal basis of the state would have been seriously undermined and the community would have fallen apart. Abu Bakr (r) continued the traditions of the Prophet, avoided innovations, overcame internal dissentions, established the rule of law, suppressed false prophets and successfully defended the nascent state against the Byzantine and Persian Empires. He demonstrated that the Muslims were a living, dynamic community. Under his leadership, Islam embarked on the process of history bereft of its Prophet but animated by the message of the Qur’an and his Sunnah.

by Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD

History of Islam

An encyclopedia of Islamic history

 

 

 

Islam started from Adam the first man and prophet on earth. Nonbelievers may say wrongly Muhammad who is born at Saudi Arabia is the founder of Islam and it starts from him. It is big mistake owing to their lack correct knowledge. Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with over a thousand million followers. It is more often thought of as a complete way of life rather than a religion. Some thinkers believed it as movement for complete and ultimate social justice.

 

Islam began from the human being on earth. It is not only for those who lived in Arabia and it was revealed to humanity by more than hundred thousand Prophets in which Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the last one. Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God, called Allah.

Even though Islam is mainly followed in the Middle East, Asia, and the north of Africa its wide acceptability is going high and high day by day every parts of the world especially in Europe and America.

Subhanallah !
Prophet Muhammad’صلى الله عليه وسلم’s tomb in Saudi Arabia is allegedly proposed to be destroyed. A major Saudi academic has allegedly made such highly controversial proposals in his consultation document. The document has apparently been distributed among the supervisors at the al-Masjid al-Nabawi mosque in Medina.
The Independent reported that the classified document of the proposal had been exposed by Dr Irfan al-Alawi. The director of the Islamic Heritage Research Foundation criticized the proposal and warned that such action might cause unrest among the Muslims worldwide
Prophet’s body may be taken to another grave. The alleged plan is to destroy chambers around Prophet Muhammad’sصلى الله عليه وسلم grave. The Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلمremains should be anonymously kept in the al-Baqi cemetery, the 61-page plan apparently suggests. The proposed plan is likely to be highly controversial among Muslims who consider the place to be one of the holiest places on earth.
The basis of the alleged proposal seems to be the practice of visiting the tomb, which Saudi hardliners consider to be a flawed interpretation of Islam. The Wahhabi version of Islamic sects that Saudi Arabia follows does not apparently allow visiting of any object including a tomb.
Actually most Muslims are going there and ask Shafaa from Prophet (s). Wahaabi extremists are interpreting this as worshipping and Shirk.

 

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We don’t know what fiqh criteria this sheikh is using to give his decree when says: that it is a superstitious practice that was illegally added to the religion.

Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al-Asheikh was wrong as he has warned against celebrating the birthday of the Prophet (peace be upon him)

He says ““It is a bida (a sinful religious innovation) that crept into Islam after the first three centuries when the companions and successors of the companions lived.”

The fact that something was not done by the prophet(pbuh) is not enough evidence to forbid celebrations currently seen among Muslim world in the name of our beloved prophet(pbuh), because there are so many things our sheikh and his followers are doing which were neither done by the prophet(pbuh) nor his sahabas.

Bid’a Hasanah is approved by Sharia. He can find it if he knows the right ways of Islamic Jurisprudence. The base of Mawlid Celebrations is the expression of joy and happiness in the birth of prophet Swallallahu Alaihi wasallam. It is not all prohibited by Islam or Prophet swallallahu Alaihi wasallam. The ways of celebrations will be innovative as the time became more modern. That type of innovations are being done by in many islamic rituals including Swalah, Zakath,  Hajj, Fasting and all without any dispute among Muslims.

Muslims Must Exhibit Unconditional Love, Peace And Solace in the month of Rabi al-Nur: Hazrat Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchawi

By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi

Visiting patients, planting trees, care for prisoners, orphans, and all poor sections of society must be given the paramount importance in the month of Rabi al-Nur throughout the year.

“The spirit of philanthropy is well-embedded in all the teachings of Islam in general. However, when the Islamic month of Rabiul Awwal emerges with its shades of peace, love and mercy, Muslims must emulate the peaceful ideals of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). ”

These views were expressed by Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchawi , founder and president of All India Ulama and Mashaikh Board, an apex body of Sufi Sunni Muslims in India. He was addressing a spiritually inclined audience at a shrine in Agra, popularly known as Mu’afi Dargah Nabi Kareem, Sarae Bodla.

He said that “Muslims feel obliged to organise large-scale, profound spiritual gatherings and social and communitarian events on the occasion of Miladun Nabi in order to make special mention of the Prophet’s generosity of spirit, his social service and deep care for all creations of the world”. “Thus, common Muslim masses are given an abundant opportunity to apprise themselves with the holy Prophet’s life and his peaceful and humanitarian messages that exhort them to abide by the holy Qur’an and Sunnah, the sayings and traditions of the Prophet (peace be upon him)”, he said.

Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchawi  further said that “the occasion of Miladun Nabi should be particularly meant for visiting patients, planting trees, care for prisoners and orphans. All weak and poor sections of society must be given special regards and attention in the month of Prophet’s birth, keeping this spirit alive throughout the year”.

Speaking to reporters and media persons, he said that the traditional spiritual gatherings of Milad beautifully explain how gently Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) treated all peoples, regardless of their friends and foes. On this occasion, he said, we should recount glorious examples of the Prophet’s humane behaviour with peoples of other faiths and even those who professed no conventional belief. Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchawi  proclaimed that the birth day of the Propeht Muhammad (pbuh) should be greatly valued as the “World Peace Day”.

The program was chaired by Maulana Mudassar Khan, whereas Maulana Ghulam Jabir Raza fulfilled the duties of an anchor of the event. It was held under the auspices of Sheikh Muhammad Shafeeq. There was a considerable number of Ulama, Mashaikh and imamas over there. Some of the notable among them were Mufti Waseem Ashrafi, Maulana Masroor Raza Qadri, Maulana Mohammad Ali, Jauhar Shafiqi, Syed Mohammad Ali Shafiqi, Qari Mushahid Raza, Maulana Matlub Hussain, Qari Hanif Qadri, Haji Mohammad Imran Ashrafi, Qari Nawab Iqbal, Maulana Dilkash Jaluni, Maulana Ahmad Raza, Maulana Sajjad Alam, Maulana Arshad-ur-Rehman, Sheikh Mohammad Amir Qadri. The program came to an end with the beautiful and glorious recitation of peace and greetings (Salat o Salam) upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

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